Module Presentation


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 The User Manual, with a complete description of the different modules, can be downloaded here: User Manual

Mercury injection (MICP)

Mercury injection is used to calculate drainage capillary pressure for initializing reservoir simulations (Leverett J function) and to determine pore size distribution (EOR and rock typing). Entering data takes just a few minutes and computation is instantaneous.

  • ASCII files generated by experimental apparatus can be opened directly
  • Powerful data smoothing by spline functions
  • Calculation of three types of pore size distributions
  • Interpretation of first injection, withdrawal, and second injection
  • Calculation of reservoir capillary pressure curve
  • Permeability estimate (including Swanson and Kamath)
  • Automatic reporting: all results are exported in an Excel file

Absolute permeability (PERM)

In laboratories, absolute permeability is generally calculated with a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel. However, the use of CYDAR minimizes the risk of errors, improves quality control, and provides additional features such as taking into account the variations of temperature during the experiment.

  • Gas and liquid permeability, steady-state et transient (pulse decay)
  • Account for temperature and atmospheric pressure variations during experiment (not possible in a spreadsheet)
  • Determination of the inertial coefficient (Forchheimer correction)
  • Determination of the Klinkenberg correction
  • Correction for pressure drop in tubings
  • Automatic reporting: all results are exported in an Excel file

Dispersion / Tracer module

In CYDAR 2017, we are introducing a new dispersion / tracer module. Dispersion experiments give indication on the homogeneity of the sample, by analysing dispersion of an injected solution at concentration Cin with a solution at concentration C0 present in sample.

  • 4 models have been implemented: Classical, Koval, Coats and Smith, and Stratiffed.
  • Temperature corrections and normalization are available.

Two-phase flow experiments (TPF)

CYDAR can simulate any kind of two-phase flow experiments:

  • Kr steady-state and unsteady-state
  • Semi-dynamic method
  • Spontaneous displacements (immersion of a sample into a fluid, drainage or imbibition)
  • Gravity flow
  • Centrifuge displacements
  • Porous plate, with pressure drop inside the porous plates
  • Automatic reporting: all results are exported in an Excel file

Most laboratory experiments are pre-programmed in CYDAR with the boundary conditions, which are specific to each experiments, adjusted accordingly.

In addition, the user may also simulate non-programmed experiments by setting inlet and outlet boundary conditions.

For any experiment, all variables (flow rates, effluent volumes, pressures, saturations…) are dynamically displayed during the simulation, and the simulation can be stopped at any time.

The Two-Phase Flow module can be used either for direct simulations to design an experiment (when sample properties are known), or to determine unknown parameters (inverse calculation). For all experiments, Kr and Pc curves can be adjusted by manual or automatic history matching. The simulated results (production, saturation profile, and pressures) are compared to experimental data; the difference is minimized in an optimization loop.

Centrifuge Capillary Pressure (Centri)

The centrifuge module converts average values measured during the experiment to local capillary pressures determined at the entrance of the sample.

Main features include:

  • Both drainage and imbibition
  • Choice of several interpretation methods, such as Hassler Brunner, Forbes, and spline functions
  • Accounts for foot bath
  • Automatic reporting: all results are exported in an Excel file

Relative Permeabilities (RelPerm)

Determination of relative permeabilities is a major objective in special core analysis. It is now well-recognized that a numerical interpretation accounting for capillary effects is absolutely necessary.

In CYDAR, relative permeabilities can be determined by history matching of any transient experiment using the Two-Phase Flow module (steady-state and unsteady-state displacements, centrifuge, semi-dynamic, and more). In addition, a special module is devoted to the standard single-step unsteady-state injection.

Main features include:

  • Analytical calculation using JBN, or Jones and Roszelles methods used as a first estimation for history matching
  • For unsteady state, analytical calculation using JBN or Jones and Roszelles methods
  • For steady state, analytical calculation using the asumption of uniform saturation
  • Numerical simulation with capillary pressure, and determination of Kr using manual or automatic optimization (so-called history matching)
  • Automatic reporting: all results are exported in an Excel file

Two-Phase Flow with EOR module

In CYDAR 2017, we are introducing a new Two-Phase Flow module with EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery), to simulate the effects of polymers and surfactants on Two-Phase Flow experiments.

  • Simulates the effects of polymers and surfactants on Two-Phase Flow experiments.
  • Injection of polymers and surfactants.
  • Mixing in the aqueous phase at each simulation step: calculation of the new concentrations; calculation of the new ow properties (viscosity, capillary pressure Pc, relative permeabilities Kr).
  • Effect of polymers on water viscosity, water permeability, and volume exclusion.
  • Effect of surfactants on capillary pressure, Krmax, and Sor.
  • Adsorption for polymers and surfactants, Langmuir isotherm.